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Found 33 results

  1. Tuccy

    Battle of Savo Island

    This night battle, first of the surface engagement in the Solomons chain, was the worst defeat the US Navy suffered in its history. Reacting to the Allied landing on Guadalcanal, Admiral Mikawa put together all available surface forces - seven cruisers and a single destroyer - and led them in first of the raids down the "Slot" from Rabaul to Guadalcanal. Thanks to the superior night trainign and equipment, along with serious tactical and communication errors on the Allied side, the Japanese force managed to utterly surprise and defeat two of the three Allied surface groups, heavily damaging cruisers USS Chicago and HMAS Canberra (had to be scuttled later) of the Southern patrol group and sinking trio of Astoria class heavy cruisers in the Northern group. USS Quincy under fire Due to the time it took to get his ships back in formation and damage suffered by sporadic return fire, he decided not to risk his ships by pressing the attack further and instead retreated to Rabaul, losing the cruiser Kako to submarine torpedo on August 10th just 70 miles short of Rabaul. In total, with air and submarine attacks, the Japanese lost one heavy cruiser against four heavy cruisers and one destroyer being sunlk on the Allied side. Moreover the attack did lead to decision to withdhraw cargo ships from Guadalcanal, leaving the Marines ashore with limited supplies and equipment. After losing three ships of Astoria class including the lead ship in one battle, the class was renamed after the second ship, USS New Orleans. 8th Fleet (VAdm Gunichi Mikawa) Chokai (flagship) - light damage Cruiser Division 6 (RAdm Goto) Aoba (flagship) Furutaka Kako - torpedoed on August 10th Kinugasa Cruiser Division 18 (RAdm Matsuyama) Tenryu (flagship) Yubari Screen Yunagi Task Force 62 (RAdm Turner) Task Group 62.6 - Western Screen (RAdm Crutchley) HMAS Australia (flagship) - part of Southern Group, not present) Radar Pickets USS Blue USS Ralph Talbot - damaged Southern Group HMAS Canberra - damaged, scuttled USS Chicago - damaged USS Bagley USS Patterson - damaged Northern Group USS Vincennes - sunk USS Quincy - sunk USS Astoria - sunlk USS Helm USS Wilson Task Group 62.4 - Eastern Screen (RAdm Scott) USS San Juan HMAS Hobart USS Monssen USS Buchanan Unattached USS Jarvis - damaged by air strike on August 8th, retreating independently to Australia, sunk by air strike on August 9th
  2. Tuccy

    Battle of Sagami Bay

    On this day in history the last surface action of World War II took place off the tip of the Bōsō Peninsula. Destroyer Squadron 61 of the US Navy intercepted a Japanese coastal convoy of two freighters, escorted by one minesweeper and one submarine chaser. One of the freighters was sunk and the other damaged. Destroyer Squadron 61 Destroyer Division 121 USS De Haven (DD 727) - flagship USS Mansfield (DD 728) USS Lyman K. Swenson (DD 729) USS Collett (DD 730) USS Maddox (DD 731) Destroyer Division 122 USS Blue (DD 744) USS Brush (DD 745) USS Taussig (DD 746) USS Samuel N. Moore (DD 747) USS De Haven (DD 727), flagship of DesRon 61, on May 14th, 1944.
  3. Tuccy

    Scuttling of Admiral Graf Spee

    Submitted by @Salentine 17 December 1939 - On this in history The Admiral Graf Spee was scuttled in the River Plate estuary to prevent the ship from falling into enemy hands as an aftermath of the Battle of Rio de la Plata.
  4. until
    On this day in history in 1945, the Japanese submarine I-58 hit heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis with a torpedo. Ship sunk 12 minutes later and her disappearance was not noticed until a patrol plane chanced to spot the survivors on August 2nd. This failure was caused both by lapses in the coordination between two commands and by a secret nature of the previous journey of the Indianapolis - carrying parts of the first nuclear bombs to the Mariana islands. This was the last large ship being lost during the World War II. Note: Time of the event is set to the actual time of attack, July 30 at 00:15 local time. I-58 USS Indianapolis, July 10th, 1945
  5. Tuccy

    Sinking of PT-109

    On August 1st, 1943, a strong force of PT boats was dispatched to the Blackett Strait to try and ambush Japanese destroyers bringing supplies to Kolombangara. After unsuccessful attack, only three boats were left on patrol. At 2 at night, August 2nd, one of them, a PT-109, suddenly found itself in the path of destroyer Amagiri. Amagiri rammed and sunk her, leaving 11 survivors in the water. The survivors swam to the nearby islands. Six days later, native scouts found them and, having delivered the boat's commander to an Australian coastwatcher (screatched in the coconut shell), a rescue operation was mounted. Who was the commander of PT-109? None other than the son of former ambassador to the United Kingdom and a future president of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy.
  6. Tuccy

    Battle of Vella Gulf

    This battle saw the first independent operation of US Destroyers in the Solomons while trying to interrupt the "Tokio Express" supply runs. Using the lessons from the previous night battles, Cdr. Moosbugger split his force into two divisions, planning to use DesDiv 12 as a hammer and DesDiv 15 as an anvil in a combined gun and torpedo ambush. Thanks to the new SG radars, the American destroyers of DesDiv 12 were able to launch their torpedoes undetected and their salvo hit all four Japanese destroyers, crippling three of them right under the guns of DesDiv 15. The only Japanese destroyer to escape the ambush was Shigure, where torpedo hitting her punched straight through the rudder without detonating. Shigure was able to get away, adding to her commander, Tameichi Hara's, "Unsinkable" reputation. Note: In the Order of Battle, intentionally displaying the detailed Japanese organization - by this stage of war, where US Navy preferred to deploy Destroyer Divisions together, IJN tended to mix and match ships and commanders who did not operate together before. Task Group 31.2 (Cdr. Moosbrugger) Destroyer Division 12 USS Dunlap (flagship) USS Craven USS Maury Destroyer Division 15 USS Lang USS Sterett USS Stack (Cpt. Kaju Sugiura) 3rd Fleet Destroyer Squadron 10 Destroyer Division 4 Hagikaze (Flagship) - sunk Arashi - sunk 2nd Fleet Destroyer Squadron 2 Destroyer Division 24 Kawakaze - sunk Destroyer Division 27 Shigure - damaged
  7. Tuccy

    Battle of Kolobangara

    Submitted by @Jellicoe1916 In another pitched battle in the Kula Gulf, another edition of "Tokio Express" - 4 transport destroyers escorted by 5 destroyers and a light cruiser - was intercepted by Allied light cruisers. Same as in the previous battle, however, the Japanese ships were shown to be a dangerous opponent. While outnumbered, outgunned and losing the light cruiser Jintsu, their torpedoes found the nmark, heavily damaging all three cruisers and sinking destroyer USS Gwin - while at the same time providing enough distraction for the transport group to land the 1,200 men at Vila. USS St. Louis and HMNZS Leander firing. Japan: Covering Force (RAdm Shunji Izaki) Jintsu (flagship) - sunk Kiyonami Yugure Yukikaze Hamakaze Mikazuki Transport Force (1,200 soldiers for Vila) Satsuki Minazuki Matsukaze Yunagi Allies: Task Force 36.1 (RAdm Ainsworth) Cruiser Division 9 USS Honolulu (CL-48, flagship) - damaged USS St. Louis (CL-49) - damaged HMNZS Leander - damaged Destroyer Squadron 21 USS Nicholas (DD-449) USS O'Bannon (DD-450) USS Taylor (DD-468) USS Jenkins (DD-447) USS Radford (DD-446) Destroyer Squadron 12 USS Ralph Talbot (DD-390) USS Buchanan (DD-484) USS Maury (DD-401) USS Woodworth (DD-460) USS Gwin (DD-433) - sunk
  8. Tuccy

    Attack on Yokosuka

    On this day in history in 1945, Allied naval aviation attacked Yokosuka. While the attack caused considerable damage, the main prize - the battleship Nagato - survived.
  9. Tuccy

    Second Bombardment of Kamaishi

    the last of the bombardments of Japan was truly international, with the American ships being joined not only by British, but also New Zealand warships. The target were again iron works around Kamaishi and the damage caused was more serious than i the first bombardment. Another attack was planned for August 13th, but it was cancelled both due to technical trouble of HMS King George V and the dropping of nuclear bombs. No further bombardment took place until the end of the war. US Navy: USS South Dakota USS Indiana USS Massachusetts USS Quincy II USS Chicago II USS Boston USS Saint Paul nine destroyers Royal Navy: HMS Newfoundland three destroyers (HMS Terpsichore, Termagant, Tenacious) Royal New Zealand Navy: HMNZS Gambia
  10. Tuccy

    First Bombardment of Kamaishi

    On this day in history in 1945 the series of bombardment and air raids against Japanese coastal targets started. In the first of the series of bombardments, battleships South Dakota, Indiana and Massachusetts, heavy cruisers Quincy II and Chicago II and nine destroyers shelled iron works at Kamaishi (Northern Honshu) while carrier aircraft attacked shipping around Hokkaido and Honshu. This bombardment started a series of other attacks spanning the end of July and beginning of August: July 14th: Iron Works at Kamaichi (USS South Dakota, Indiana, Massachusetts, two cruisers, nine destroyers) July 15th: Iron works at Muroran (USS Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, two cruisers, eight destroyers) July 17/18th: Various targets around Hitachi (USS Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, North Carolina, Alabama, HMS King George V, two cruisers, eight American and two British destroyers) July 18th: Cape Nojima radar station (cruisers USS Astoria II, Pasadena, Springfield, Wilkes-Barre, six destroyers) - no damage July 24/25th: Seaplane base at Kushimoto and airfield near Cape Shionomisaki (same ships, little damage) July 29th: Various targets around Hamamatsu (USS South Dakota, Indiana, Massachusett, two cruisers, nine destroyers for USN; HMS King George V, three destroyers for the Royal Navy) July 30th/31st: Shimizu aluminum plant (Destroyer Squadron 25) August 9th - 10th: Second bombardment of Kamaishi (USS South Dakota, Indiana, Massachusett, four cruisers, nine destroyers for USN, one cruiser and three destroyers for Royal Navy, one cruiser for New Zealand) USS Indiana shelling Kamaishi, July 14th 1945.
  11. Tuccy

    Battle for Saipan Ends

    Submitted by @whiskey_sk On this day in history in 1944 the island of Saipan was proclaimed secured by the US forces commander, Admiral Turner. Despite that, scattered groups of Japanese soldiers were still in hiding, including the last organized fighting unit of the Japanese army under Cpt. Sakae Ōba (he surrendered on December 1st, 1945). Cpt. Oba
  12. Tuccy

    Attack on the Convoy Faith

    In a relatively rare event, a fast troopship convoy was intercepted in the Atlantic by long range FW-200 bombers and both troopships were sunk. Subsequent attack on the next day damaged the last surviving ship of the convoy transporting survivors to Casablanca, but the attacking planes were chased away eventually in an unusual aerial duel by Catalina patrol planes. While loss of life was not as serious as it could have been, the sinking of troopships caused a significant delay in building and deployment of a West African division to Burma.
  13. Tuccy

    Battle of Cape Spada

    Submitted by @Salentine On this day in 1940 two Italian cruisers transferring to Leros were intercepted by an Allied patrol off Crete. Initially encountering just enemy destroyers, the two cruisers gave chase until running into HMAS Sydney. After a 50-minute running battle Bartolomeo Colleoni suffered damage to her boilers and despite fierce resistance even after main guns were disabled, she was sunk by torpedoes. Bande Nere managed to escape to Benghazi, escaping pursuit by HMS Warspite. 2nd Cruiser Division (RAdm Ferdinando Casardi) Bartolomeo Colleoni - sunk Giovanni delle Bande Nere - damaged 2nd Destroyer flotilla (Capt. John Collins) HMAS Sydney HMS Hasty HMS Havock HMS Hero HMS Hyperion HMS Ilex
  14. Submitted by @Salentine 9 July 1940 - On this in history The Battle of Calabria took place it was one of the first large battles between the Italian Royal Navy (16 DD's, 6 CA's, 8 CL's and 2 BB's including the Guilio Cesare) and the British Royal Navy (16 DD's, 5 CA's, 1 CV and 3 BB's including the Warspite) both forces were escorting vital convoys, the Italians to north Africa and the British to Malta, both sides exchanged fire and retreated. The Italians suffered damage to 1 battleship, 1 heavy cruiser and 1 destroyer and the British suffered damage to 1 light cruiser and 2 destroyers. The Warspite hit the Giulio Cesare at well over 24,000 metres (26,000 yd), which at the time was one of the longest-range naval artillery hits in history.
  15. Tuccy

    Battle of Kula Gulf

    As the Allies advanced through the Solomons island chain, a pattern evolved - US troops landed on a new island, Japanese destroyers - the infamous "Tokyo Express" - were redirected to new port to ship supplies and reinforcements. Exactly this happened on the night of 6 July, 1943, when a group of American cruisers and destroyers intercepted a convoy of 10 destroyers. The confused night battle did see sinking of two Japanese destroyers, while USS Helena fell victim to torpedoes after she expended all her flashless powder supplies and in turn was the most visible. USS Helena and USS St. Louis in action. Cover Force (Radm Akiyama Terou) Niizuki (Flagship) - sunk Suzukaze - damaged Tanikaze 1st Transport Group Mochizuki - damaged Mikazuki Hamakaze 2nd Transport Group Nagatsuki - damaged, beached, later destroyed by air raid Satsuki Amagiri - damaged Hatsuyuki - damaged Task Group 36.1 (RAdm Ainsworth) Cruiser Division 9 USS Honolulu (CL-48) (Flagship) USS St. Louis (CL-49) USS Helena (CL-50) - sunk Destroyer Squadron 21 USS Nicholas (DD-449) USS Radford (DD-446) USS O'Bannon (DD-450) USS Jenkins (DD-447)
  16. Tuccy

    Action of 5 July

    On this day in history in 1942, submarine USS Growler managed to find three Japanese destroyers at anchor off the recently occupied island of Kiska. Firing one of the most devastating torpedo spreads in the submarine warfare history, her six torpedoes resulted in at least three hits, one on each of the destroyers. The Asashio class Arare exploded and sunk, remaining two destroyers managed to get back home with serious damage. USS Growler Shiranui (Kagero class) - damaged Arare (Asashio class) - sunk Kasumi (Asashio class) - damaged
  17. until
    On this day in history, in the evening hours, a fatal order was given to scatter the arctic convoy PQ 17. While the feared sortie of battleship Tirpitz did not happen, submarines and aircrafts sunk 24 of 35 convoy ships. Three merchant ships were protected thanks to quick thinking of commander of one of smaller escort ships:
  18. Tuccy

    Operation Catapult

    On this day in history, in 1940, after the French commanders refused the ultimatum posed to them by the Royal Navy, British warships opened fire on French fleet anchored in Mers-el-Kébir. As the French crews did not expect an attack, the results were devastating, with only the battleship Strasbourg (Dunkerque's sister) managing to escape to safety. The battleship Bretagne exploded and sunk after her ammunition was hit and her sister, Provence, sank as well, even though she was later refloated. Subsequent air attacks augmented the damage done to battleship Dunkerque and lead to retaliatory bombing raids against the Gibraltar. Battleship Strasbourg leaving the anchorage under fire.
  19. Tuccy

    Battle of the Espero Convoy

    First surface engagement between the Italian and Allied units in WWII - a small convoy of Italian destroyers carrying antitank units to Africa was intercepted by the 7th Cruiser Squadron. Order of battle: 7th Cruiser Squadron (VAdm John Tovey) 1st Cruiser Division HMS Orion (flagship) HMS Neptune HMAS Sydney HMS Gloucester 2nd Cruiser Division HMS Manchester HMS Gloucester 2nd Destroyer Squadron (Capitano di Fregata Enrico Baroni) Espero (flagship) - Sunk Ostro Zeffiro Result: Allied victory - Espero sunk On the flip side, remaining destroyers escaped and ammunition consumption halted cruiser squadron activities for some time, leading to delays in convoys to Malta.
  20. telxinos

    Fatal wrecks in Greece WWI and WWII

    We play a game and have fun but it was not fun at all buring those days many people lost theyr life and very often forgoten From my point of view make no difference warships or merchants ships history own to this people Some of those wrecks happen to bee in Greece so im going to present those as a tribute to this people SS ORGIA WWII 4000 ITALIAN POWS LOST http://www.ww2wrecks.com/portfolio/oria-shipwreck-the-watery-grave-of-4000-pows-in-1944/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Oria_(1920) HMS Perseus (N36) WW II 61 lost 1 survived https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Perseus_(N36) http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-15959067 HMHS Britannic WWI 30 lost 1035 survived https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMHS_Britannic
  21. Ten years after the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 the Greek Navy had a minimal force obsolete torpedo and three French warships which had been constructed in 1889. The urgent need for a fleet combat effectiveness resulted in the strengthening of the fleet - in late 1908 - with four new English and four German destroyers. These were added to the Screened-Cruiser "G. Averof ", the honor of the Navy.For the renewal of the fleet then government Mavromichali was sent to Orlando Shipyards in Livorno, Italy, where at that very time constructed an armored-cruiser which had been ordered and were to be used by the Italian Navy.But the cancellation of the order on the part of the Italians and the direct deposit of 1/3 of the total value of the ship allowed the acquisition of the battleship from Greece. The amount of the advance came from the will of George Averoff and amounted to 8 trillion gold drachmas, while the remaining amount of 15.65 million gold drachmas was covered by the Fund National Fleet (T.E.S.). The government spent 23.65 million drachmas to acquire it. The 8,000,000 drachmas came from 20% of the total heritage of George Averoff, who gave the will of the National Fleet Fund in 1899 (date publication of wills). The will stipulated that 1/5 of his property (20 shares) is reserved for the construction of a powerful cruiser ship that will be named and adapted to serve as a Training School ship Naval Academy for the practical and theoretical perfecting them. The remaining amount of 14.3 million was covered entirely by the Fund National Fleet (T.E.S.). It is worth mentioning that the Turks had an interest in purchasing the vessel.The 10,200 tons of armored cruiser (as further described) had Italian engines of 19,000 hp, 22 boilers French, German generators and English guns 190 and 234 mm type ARMSTRONG. The maximum speed the battleship developed was 23 knots. The "G. Averoff "was launched on March 12 (February 27 in the old calendar), 1910 and September 11, 1911 arrived at Faliro, which was accepted by the Greeks with enthusiasm.The battleship did not take long to get acquire the baptism of fire. In October 1912, with the beginning of the First Balkan War, "G.Averof", head of the Aegean Fleet under Admiral Paul Kountourioti, sailed for the Dardanelles. He captured Lemnos and at the bay of Moudros installed advanced mooring Fleet. There followed the occupation of Mount Athos, the islands of the northern and eastern Aegean (Thasos, Samothrace, Imvros, Tenedos, Ag. Efstratios, Lesvos, Chios). The clash with the Turkish fleet was inevitable. Admiral Kountouriotis gave aggressive character in Greek design. He ordered his fleet to start sailing from north to south, so the Ottoman fleet appeared at the exit of the Straits. Then the Kountouriotis sent the famous signal to the Greek ships syneplean with "C. Averof ":" With the power of God and the King Tash our vows in the name of Law sail with 'headlong momentum and belief to victory against the enemy of the Nation ".The outcome of the Battle of Elli (December 3, 1912) and Limnos (January 5, 1913) that followed shattered the expectations of the Sultan and the Sublime Porte to control the Aegean. The Ottoman fleet will not attempt any more new outlet to the Aegean.The Balkan Wars of 1912-13 are undeniably the most glorious war period of the battleship "G. Averof ". With the outbreak of hostilities in October 1912, the Greek navy was asked to achieve a particularly difficult combination of multiple objectives: to prevent the exit of the Ottoman fleet in the Aegean, to acquire ownership of the northeastern Aegean islands, to prevent the transfer of Ottoman troops and supplies to the continental fronts of the Balkans, and to protect the marine transport of Greece and its allies. The successful outcome of the Greek executive designs were the result of three factors: the increased operational capabilities available to the newly battleship, the unquestionable leadership capacity and courage of Admiral Paul Kountourioti and the moral of Greek crews of all without exception of the Greek fleet. The successful occupation of the northeastern Aegean islands and the Greek prevalence of weapons in Battle of Elli and Limnos resulted the 'G. Averof "to acquire symbol dimensions in folk memory: a myth had already been born.During most of World War I Greece remained neutral. But in 1917 the Government of E. Venizelos decided to participate in the war alongside the Allies. By the end of the global conflict -October 1918 Turkey capitulated (Moudros truce) and Greece was on the winning side. The "G. Averof "sailed to Constantinople where he raised the Greek flag as one of the victorious powers of the Great War. In conclusion, the full control of the Mediterranean by the allied navy and the success of the Allied naval strategy, which was aimed at excluding the fleet of the Central Powers in the Adriatic and the Turkish Bosphorus, was based largely on precisely these shocks had brought the Greek fleet and "G. Averof "in Istanbul and the raising of the Greek flag served as the vindication of the courage and selflessness of the Greek naval fleet in the struggle for national integration, most naval symbol of daring and heroism, stimulated the collective imagination and visions of Hellenism.After the signing of the peace treaties "G. Averof "along with the rest of the fleet moved the Greek troops in Ionia. The business developments in Asia Minor deleted quickly downturn which resulted in his destruction on '22. The "G. Averof "found in Asia Minor again, this time to help in the transportation of troops and uprooted Greek element.5 With the start of World War II battleship "G. Averoff "was again head as flagship of Greek naval fleet. After however the collapse of the front in April 1941, the Ministry ordered the Navy to sank the battleship, to avoid falling into enemy hands. In the heart and mind of the Greek crew, leaving the remaining ships of the fleet in Alexandria was unthinkable to be without safe company of "Uncle George" heroic Battleship "G.. Averof ", as it was customary to be called fromt he crews. So, after the successful arrival of the battleship in Alexandria, the ship went to Bombay for general repair and overhaul. Initially the 'G. Averoff "was active in the Indian Ocean, with a mission to protect convoys, on their way from Bombay to Aden. At the end of 1942 "G. Averof " sailed into Port Said, where he participated in port protection missions. With the withdrawal of the German occupation forces in late September 1944 and with an absence of almost four years, the glorious "G. Averof " returned on October 16, 1944 afternoon in Greece, bringing with him the then exiled Greek government and solemnly anchored in Faliro bay. In the period 1947-1949 was the Battleship Fleet Headquarters in Keratsini. But the ship had 'aged' and in 1952 ordered his decommissioning. I hope one day G.Averof will be entered in World Of Warships and make Greek players happy for one more time! Source:http://www.averof.mil.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=60&Itemid=70&lang=el
  22. A Scottish veteran pilot who helped to sink the Bismarck during World War Two has died at the age of 97. Lt Cdr John "Jock" Moffat was credited with launching the torpedo that crippled the German warship in 1941. The air strike carried out by the biplanes from HMS Victorious and Ark Royal on 26 May 1941 was said to have been Britain's last hope of stopping the Bismarck. Mr Moffat described flying through "a lethal storm of shells and bullets". Born in Kelso in June 1919, he joined the Navy as a reservist in 1938 and was posted to Ark Royal with 759 Naval Air Squadron after qualifying as a pilot. Read full article here: -------->>> http://bit.ly/2SinktheBismarck
  23. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-manchester-32899898 Some great footage of a range of ships (Destroyers and Carrier) from WWII. The link above shows some clips but I will see if they put the full reels on-line. See you at sea
  24. Well! seems like I finished my first part on these, feel free to give it a go and report your scores! Any kind of feedback is really welcome On the end, I decided to split the Quiz in two parts, the first one (the one here) is about major classes of the IJN in WWII (BBs, CVs, CVLs, CVEs and CAs) the next part will be abot minor classes (CLs, DDs and SSs) I am still working on it though. Please bare in mind some points before making the test: 1. This is a test about Navy ships, so ships operated by the army (such as the Akitsu Maru class CVE) are not asked 2. This test takes in account the "final name" of a ship, so if a ship was converted and after conversion it changed name, the answer will be the second one 3. This test uses IJN hull classifications (so no Nachi class CA, Naka class CL or Tatsuta class CL here ) 4. If you want to read the comments on each class, my advise is to read them at the end of the test so you don't lose time doing so Well, here you have the link, please enjoy it! and I hope you liked! http://www.sporcle.com/games/Chamorro/classes-of-warships-in-the-ijn-wwii-period Remember to post your scores! and no spoilers for the ones who haven't answered it yet
  25. The Yamato-class battleships (大和型戦艦 Yamato-gata senkan?) were battleships of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) constructed and operated during World War II. Displacing 72,000 long tons (73,000 t) at full load, the vessels were the heaviest and most powerfully armed battleships ever constructed. The class carried the largest naval artillery ever fitted to a warship, nine 460-millimetre (18.1 in) naval guns, each capable of firing 2,998-pound (1,360 kg) shells over 26 miles (42 km). Two battleships of the class (Yamato and Musashi) were completed, while a third (Shinano) was converted to an aircraft carrier during construction. Due to the threat of American submarines and aircraft carriers, both Yamato and Musashi spent the majority of their careers in naval bases at Brunei, Truk, and Kure—deploying on several occasions in response to American raids on Japanese bases—before participating in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944, as part of Admiral Kurita's Centre Force. Musashi was sunk during the course of the battle by American carrier airplanes. Shinano was sunk ten days after her commissioning in November 1944 by the submarine USS Archer-Fish, while Yamato was sunk in April 1945 during Operation Ten-Go. Yamato undergoing trials Class overview Name: Yamato-class battleship Builders: Kure Naval Arsenal Yokosuka Naval Arsenal Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Operators: Empire of Japan Imperial Japanese Navy Preceded by: Nagato class (actual) Number 13 class (planned) Cost: 250,000,897 JPY Built: 1937–1942 In commission: 1941–1945 Planned: 5 Completed: 3 (2 battleships, 1 converted to aircraft carrier) Cancelled: 2 Lost: 3 General characteristics as per final plan (A-140F6) Background Design Ships Cultural significanceFrom the time of their construction until the present day, Yamato and Musashi have carried a notable presence in Japanese culture, Yamato in particular. Upon completion, the battleships represented the epitome of Imperial Japanese naval engineering. In addition, the two ships, due to their size, speed, and power, visibly embodied Japan's determination and readiness to defend its interests against the western powers, especially the United States. Shigeru Fukudome, chief of the Operations Section of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff, described the two ships as "symbols of naval power that provided to officers and men alike a profound sense of confidence in their navy." Yamato, and especially the story of her sinking, has appeared often in Japanese popular culture, such as the anime Space Battleship Yamato and the 2005 film Yamato. The appearances in popular culture usually portray the ship's last mission as a brave, selfless, but futile, symbolic effort by the participating Japanese sailors to defend their homeland. One of the reasons that the warship may have such significance in Japanese culture is that the word "Yamato" was often used as a poetic name for Japan. Thus, the end of battleship Yamato could serve as a metaphor for the end of the Japanese empire. Visitors to the 'Yamato Museum' examine the museum's 1:10 scale model of the battleship in 2006