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  1. Russian and USSR Aircraft Carrier Design Studies from 1900 till 1949 It goes without saying that WOWS will see several of the USSR Aircraft Carrier design studies introduced into the game, probably around May in either 2021 or 2022. This topic presents an overview of what little reliable data is available on Russian and USSR Aircraft Carrier design studies for the time frame of WOWS. Russia from 1900 up till 1922 had some Aircraft Carrier design studies. Russia from 1900 up till 1922 had not started actual construction of a single Aircraft Carrier or Aircraft Carrier conversion. The Soviet Union had Aircraft Carrier design studies dating from 1922 till the death of Stalin in 1953. The USSR regime had from 1922 till the death of Stalin in 1953 not started construction of a single Aircraft Carrier or Aircraft Carrier conversion. Reliable data on the USSR Aircraft Carriers is hard to come by and reliable plans are even more rare still. To my knowledge there is no reliable data on any USSR Carrier Aircraft designs. It would be a long time before the USSR commissioned her first Carrier. In 1967 the USSR Helicopter Carrier MOSKWA was commissioned, becoming the first Carrier of the USSR. During the time frame of WOWS, roughly from 1900 till 1953, there were various Russian and USSR Aircraft Carrier design studies, this topic will list those that have more or less reliably been identified. None of these seem to have been more than design studies, meaning none of them resulted in actual construction blueprints that were ever seriously considered for construction. The USSR up till 1953 did have one Aircraft Carrier though, but it was not designed or built in the USSR. Up till 1953 the only Aircraft Carrier that the USSR posessed was the German Aircraft Carrier GRAF ZEPPELIN which had been completed up till 95% by January 1943. After WW2 key German naval aviation facilites and the Aircraft Carrier GRAF ZEPPELIN, including her latest blueprints, fell into the hands of the USSR. The GRAF ZEPPELIN had however been thoroughly and severely sabotaged and subsequently scuttled by the German Navy. The USSR Navy at the direction of Admiral Nikolai Kuznetsov ordered the GRAF ZEPPELIN raised and rudimentary repaired so she could be towed to Leningrad where she was to be fully repaired and completed so she could be commissioned and become the first Aircraft Carrier in the service of the USSR. The USSR had at that time, other than some drawings, no Aircraft Carrier technology whatsoever unlike Germany which had developed, built and tested all technology required for the GRAF ZEPPELIN class and her aircraft even before WW2 had started. When USSR engineers had finally patched up and repainted the scuttled GRAF ZEPPELIN to the point that she could finally be towed to the USSR it was not to be because on Stalin's direct orders Admiral Kuznetsov was ignominiously removed from his post and in 1948 he, as well as several other USSR admirals were put on show trials by the USSR Naval Tribunal and all found "guilty". Admiral Kuznetsov was then criminalized, marginalized, demoted and ultimately humiliated, and the other USSR admirals received prison sentences of varying length. Kuznetsov's successor then had the only partially and rudimentary repaired GRAF ZEPPELIN towed to sea on Stalin's orders to be sunk by the USSR Air Force, Stalin's "Falcons". These however proved unable to do so after repeated air attacks and even aerial bombs pre-installed in the ship failed to do so, as a result the USSR Navy was finally ordered to sink her with torpedoes. As a result the USSR would have to wait until 1967 before she could commission her first Aircraft Carrier. Conversion Project ADMIRAL LAZAREV Design study date: 1909/1910 Displacement: 3,750 standard tons Length: 80.2 meters Beam: 12 meters Draught: 5 meters Propulsion: 1 expansion machine with 5 boilers Power of propulsion: 2,000 HP Speed: 10.5 knots knots/endurance: ? Complement: ? Armament: ? Number of Aircraft: 5-8 Catapults: 1 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 1 Armor: yes Building yard: the ironclad was built at Carr & Mac Pherson in Petrograd (present day Saint Petersburg) Laid down: as ironclad on 29 May 1867 Launched: as ironclad on 21 September 1867 Commissioned: as ironclad in 1872 Conversion Project study, conversion not carried out. Conversion of the ironclad ADMIRAL LAZAREV. The idea for conversion came from a Colonel in the Imperial Russian Army named Michael M. Konokotin. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Conversion Project IZMAIL Design study date: 1928 Displacement: 36,000 standard tons Length: 228 meters Beam: 29.9 meters Draught: 9.4 meters Propulsion: 4 sets of Franco-Russian turbines with 25 Yarrow boilers Power of propulsion: 66,000 HP Speed: 26.5 knots knots/endurance: ? Complement: ? Armament: 2x 76 mm (2x1), up to 10 other Flak guns and 4 Torpedo Tubes Number of Aircraft: 75 Catapults: - Hanger: 4 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: belt 238-100 mm, deck 38 mm Building yard: the Battlecruiser was laid down at the Baltic Yard in Petrograd (present day Saint Petersburg) Laid down: as Battlecruiser on 19 December 1912 Launched: as Battlecruiser on 22 June 1915 Commissioned: - Conversion Project study, conversion not carried out. Conversion of the incomplete Battlecruiser IZMAIL. Several variants were examined. One variant was a flush deck Carrier, another variant was a Carrier with an "island". This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Conversion Project POLTAVA Design study date: 1926 Displacement: 28,800 standard tons Length: 181 meters Beam: 26.8 meters Draught: 8.3 meters Propulsion: 4 sets of Parson turbines with 25 Yarrow boilers Power of propulsion: 42,000 HP Speed: 23 knots knots/endurance: 1800 nautical miles at 30 knots Complement: ? Armament: 2x 76 (2x1), up to 10 Flak guns and 4 Torpedo Tubes Number of Aircraft: 50 Catapults: - Hanger: 4 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: belt 250 mm, deck 100 mm Building yard: the Battleship was laid down at the Admiralty Yard in in Petrograd (present day Saint Petersburg) Laid down: as Battleship on 15 May 1912 Launched: as Battleship on 10 July 1911 Commissioned: as Battleship on 30 December 1914 (renamed FRUNZE on 7 January 1926) Conversion Project study, conversion not carried out. Conversion of the dreadnought POLTAVA. Several variants were examined. One variant was a flush deck Carrier, another variant was a Carrier with an "island". This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Conversion Project KOMSOMOLEC (ex-OKEAN) Design study date: 1927 Displacement: 11,680 standard tons Length: 149.9 meters Beam: 17.4 meters Draught: 7.6 meters Propulsion: 2 steam engines Power of propulsion: 1,100 HP Speed: 15 knots knots/endurance: ? Complement: as training ship 530 Armament: 16x 102 mm (8x2) Number of Aircraft: 42 Catapults: - Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: - Building yard: the training ship was laid down at the Howaldtswerke in Kiel (Germany) Laid down: as training ship in 1908 Launched: as training ship in 1908 Commissioned: as training ship in 1909 Conversion Project study, conversion not carried out. Conversion of the training ship KOMSOMOLEC (ex-OKEAN). This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Aircraft Carrier for the Shipbuilding Program Design study date: 1938+ Displacement: 11,000 standard tons Length: 180 meters Beam: 20 meters Draught: ? meters Propulsion: ? turbines Power of propulsion: ? Speed: 30 knots knots/endurance: 4,000 nautical miles at ? knots Complement: as training ship 530 Armament: 6-8x 130 mmm 8x 37 m Number of Aircraft: 40-50 Catapults: ? Hanger: yes Aircraft Elevators: yes Armor: ? Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, 2 were planned, none were laid down. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 1058.1 Gibbs & Cox Design A Design study date: November 1937 Displacement: 66,074 standard tons Length: 304.8 meters Beam: 36.7 meters Draught: 10.46 meters Propulsion: geared turbines with 13 boilers Power of propulsion: 300,000 HP Speed: 34 knots knots/endurance: 29,000 nautical miles at 12 knots Complement: ? Armament: 8x 457 mm (4x2), 28x 127 mm (14x2), 24x 28 mm, 10x 12.7 mm Number of Aircraft: 36 + 4 Flying Boats Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: yes Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - The Aircraft were to be launched from Catapults and they would land on the Flight Deck. The Flight Deck was intended to be used for landing Aircraft only. Project study, none were laid down. Design by the USA naval design bureau Gibbs and Cox. This project was a hybrid battleship-carrier design with 4x2 457 mm guns. The USSR regime had refused to sign any naval limitations treaties and that was reflected in the design. US government officials then vetoed the design because it was far beyond all regulations and limitations of the existing naval treaties. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 1058.2 Gibbs & Cox Design B Design study date: July 1938 Displacement: 71,850 standard tons Length: 306.32 meters Beam: 36.73 meters Draught: 10.46 meters Propulsion: geared turbines with 13 boilers Power of propulsion: 300,000 HP Speed: 34 knots knots/endurance: 29,000 nautical miles at 12 knots Complement: 2706 Armament: 12x 406 mm (4x3), 28x 12.7 mm (14x2), 32x 28 mm, 12x 12.7 mm Number of Aircraft: 36 + 4 Flying Boats Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: yes Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - The Aircraft were to be launched from Catapults and they would land on the Flight Deck. The Flight Deck was intended to be used for landing Aircraft only. Project study, none were laid down. Design by the USA naval design bureau Gibbs and Cox. This project was a hybrid battleship-carrier design with 4x3 406 mm guns. The USSR regime had refused to sign any naval limitations treaties and that was reflected in the design. US government officials then vetoed the design because it was far beyond all regulations and limitations of the existing naval treaties. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 1058.3 Gibbs & Cox Design C Design study date: July 1938 Displacement: 55,206 standard tons Length: 257.56 meters Beam: 35.05 meters Draught: 10.16 meters Propulsion: geared turbines with 8 boilers Power of propulsion: 200,000 HP Speed: 31 knots knots/endurance: 16,000 nautical miles at 15 knots Complement: ? Armament: 10x 406 mm (2x3 1x4), 20x 127 mm (10x2), 20x 28 mm, 20x 12.7 mm Number of Aircraft: 24 + 4 Flying Boats Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 1 Armor: yes Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - The Aircraft were to be launched from Catapults and they would land on the Flight Deck. The Flight Deck was intended to be used for landing Aircraft only. Project study, none were laid down. Design by the USA naval design bureau Gibbs and Cox. This project was a hybrid battleship-carrier design with 2x3 + 1x4 406 mm guns. The USSR regime had refused to sign any naval limitations treaties and that was reflected in the design. US government officials then vetoed the design because it was far beyond all regulations and limitations of the existing naval treaties. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 1058.4 Gibbs & Cox Design D Design study date: March 1939 Displacement: 45,000 standard tons Length: 257.56 meters Beam: 34.95 meters Draught: 10.16 meters Propulsion: geared turbines with 8 boilers Power of propulsion: 200,000 HP Speed: 31 knots knots/endurance: 16,000 nautical miles at 15 knots Complement: 2010 Armament: 10x 406 (2x3 1x4), 20x 127 mm (10x2), 16x 28 mm (4x4), 10x 12.7 mm (10x1) Number of Aircraft: 4 Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: belt 330-178 mm, deck main 121+28, deck lower 44-32 Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - The Aircraft were to be launched from Catapults and they would land on the Flight Deck. The Flight Deck was intended to be used for landing Aircraft only. Project study, none were laid down. This is the FINAL Design by the USA naval design bureau Gibbs and Cox. This project was a hybrid battleship-carrier design with 2x3 + 1x4 406 mm guns. The USSR regime had refused to sign any naval limitations treaties and that was reflected in the design. US government officials finally also vetoed this design because the USSR had invaded and occupied more than half of Poland in 1939 (and also in 1919/1920 but were defeated then) and then also invaded Finland in 1939. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Icebreaker-Carrier KIROV Design study date: 1936 Displacement: 8,300 standard tons Length: 110 meters Beam: 21 meters Draught: ? meters Propulsion: ? Power of propulsion: ? Speed: ? knots knots/endurance: ? Complement: ? Armament: ? Number of Aircraft: 4 Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 1 Armor: ? Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 71a Design study date: 1936 Displacement: 13,000 standard tons Length: 191 meters Beam: 17.7 meters Draught: 6.3 meters Propulsion: 2 sets of geared turbines with 6 boilers Power of propulsion: 130,000 HP Speed: 34 knots knots/endurance: ? Complement: ? Armament: 8x 130 mm (4x2) initial design replaced in final design by 8x 100 mm (8x1), 16x 37 mm (4x4), ?x 12.2 mm Number of Aircraft: 30-45 Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: yes Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. Based on the hull of the Light Cruiser Project 68, better known as the CHAPAEV-class. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 71b Design study date: 1937 Displacement: 38,600 standard tons Length: 248 meters Beam: 31.4 meters Draught: 9.1 meters Propulsion: 4 sets of geared turbines with 6 boilers Power of propulsion: 231,000 HP Speed: 33 knots knots/endurance: ? Complement: ? Armament: 8x 130 mm (4x2), 32x 37 mm (8x4), ?x 12.2 mm Number of Aircraft: 70 Catapults: 2 Hanger: 2 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: belt 225 mm, deck 87.5 mm, flight deck 30 mm, hangar 20 mm Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. This was a conversion that would use the hull of the Battlecruiser KRONSHTADT After WWII the idea of converting the unfinished hull of the Battlecruiser KRONSHTADT was again revived as Project 69-19 / 69AV / 69AB This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 72 Design study date: 1942/1943 Displacement: 28,800 standard tons Length: 224 meters Beam: 27.9 meters Draught: 8.4 meters Propulsion: 4 sets of turbines Power of propulsion: 144,000 HP Speed: 30 knots knots/endurance: ? Complement: 2,000 Armament: 8x 130 mm (4x2), 16x 87 mm (8x2), 24x 37 mm (12x2), 48x 23 mm (24x2) Number of Aircraft: 60 Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: ? Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. The design has some superficial similarities with the USA Carrier YORKTOWN. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: ZKB-17 Design study date: November 1944+ Displacement: 51,000 standard tons Length: 280 meters Beam: 32 meters Draught: ? meters Propulsion: ? Power of propulsion: ? Speed: 32 knots knots/endurance: 10,000 nautical miles at ? knots Complement: ? Armament: 8x 152 mm (4x2), 24x100 mm (12x2), ?x 23 mm Number of Aircraft: 100 Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: ? Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. The design made use of the 1936 blueprints of the German Carrier GRAF ZEPPELIN. The Project was a study made by Lieutenant Kostromitinov, a student of naval architechture at the Soviet Naval Academy. The Soviet Naval Academy during WWII had been moved from Leningrad (present day Saint Petersburg) to Samarkand in Asia. The USSR had requested and received the plans of the GRAF ZEPPELIN as part of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Treaty. This Carrier design study is mostly based on the GRAF ZEPPELIN design. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 72 II-B Design study date: 1945+ Displacement: 34,400 standard tons Length: 273 meters Beam: 35.5 meters Draught: 8.7 meters Propulsion: ? Power of propulsion: ? Speed: 30 knots knots/endurance: 10,000 nautical miles at ? knots Complement: 2300 Armament: 24x130 mm (12x2), 16x 85 mm (8x2), 24x 37mm (12x2), 48x 23mm (24x2) Number of Aircraft: 62 Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: belt 90 mm, deck 50 mm, flight deck 30 mm, hangar 30 mm Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 72-III-M Design study date: 1945+ Displacement: 28,800 standard tons Length: 242 meters Beam: 32.5 meters Draught: 7.5 meters Propulsion: ? Power of propulsion: ? Speed: 30 knots knots/endurance: 10,000 nautical miles at ? knots Complement: 2000 Armament: 16x130 mm (8x2), 16x 85 mm (8x2), 24x 37mm (12x2), 48x 23mm (24x2) Number of Aircraft: 30 Catapults: 2 Hanger: 1 Aircraft Elevators: 2 Armor: belt 90 mm, deck 50 mm, flight deck 30 mm, hangar 30 mm Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: "Squadron Carrier" Design study date: 1945+ Displacement: ? standard tons Length: ? meters Beam: ? meters Draught: ? meters Propulsion: ? Power of propulsion: ? Speed: ? knots knots/endurance: 3,000 nautical miles at 18 knots Complement: ? Armament: ? Number of Aircraft: 30-35 Catapults: ? Hanger: ? Aircraft Elevators: ? Armor: belt ? Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. After the cancellation of Project 72 that design was used as a basis for a new design called "Squadron Carrier". Little if any reliable data is available on this design study. Purportedly the main role of the "Squadron Carrier" would have been to support amphibious operations. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: Project 69-19 / 69AV / 69AB Design study date: 1945+ Displacement: 33,800 standard tons Length: 260 meters Beam: 30 meters Draught: ? meters Propulsion: ? Power of propulsion: ? Speed: 32 knots knots/endurance: 6,900 nautical miles at 18 knots Complement: ? Armament: 16x130 mm (8x2), 32x 45 mm (8x4), 32x 25mm (16x2) Number of Aircraft: 76 Catapults: 2 Hanger: 2 Aircraft Elevators: 3 Armor: belt 120 mm, flight deck 50 mm, hangar deck 50 mm, armoured deck 90 mm Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. This was a conversion that would use the hull of the Battlecruiser KRONSHTADT The KRONSHTADT was just over 10% complete at the start of the German-USSR war in 1941. After WWII the idea of converting the unfinished hull of the Battlecruiser KRONSHTADT was again revived as Project 69-19 / 69AV. This post-1945 design used the post-1936 plans of the German Carrier GRAF ZEPPELIN which were purloined when the USSR occupied Germany. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built: "24,000 tons Carrier" Design study date: 1945+ Displacement: 24,000 standard tons Length: 240 meters Beam: 22.5 meters Draught: ? meters Propulsion: ? Power of propulsion: ? Speed: ? knots knots/endurance: ? nautical miles at ? knots Complement: ? Armament: ? Number of Aircraft: 50 Catapults: ? Hanger: ? Aircraft Elevators: ? Armor: ? Building yard: - Laid down: - Launched: - Commissioned: - Project study, none were laid down. This is what the Carrier might have looked like if it ever had been built:
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