Hey! I remember you from our private conversation not too long ago! :D
Here's my approach to this: There's nothing you can really do about the absolute window-licking that happens in ranked, but you can benefit a lot from the experience if you concentrate on whatever impact you're having in the match.
My suggestions, and I hope I'm not being too nitpicky:
I see you've brought Conqueror, Yamato, Khabarovsk, Grosser Kurfurst, and Harugumo to ranked, all of which have questionable impact in some situations or more.
GK in particular has a disadvantage because its pushing firing angles are far worse than the kiting ones (48 degrees as opposed to 36), which makes the ship eat some very nasty pens when it's trying to push with all guns on targets.
Yamato is a fantastic long-range specialist that can overmatch many BBs but isn't the most capable pusher because of the citadel vulnerability and of course a vulnerability to being flanked or rushed by rapid ships due to its slow turret traverse. Regardless, I consider this by far the most competitive BB you brought to ranked, and SOG still uses it a lot in clan battles although we tend to favor Kremlin more especially in this last season where we had an 8v8 format. You can pull off a rank-out in Yamato for sure, but you need to be very cautious when helming the ship into a push. It is the most vulnerable ship to being locked into one particular angle it can't turn away from (turn around in a ship that unmaneuverable and someone is bound to blap your broadside quickly).
Khabarovsk will *never* be able to contest caps as well as literally any other random DD pulled out of a hat. It could work on the flank and as a support DD, but what do you do when you're the only DD in your team? In ranked this happens sometimes and can be very frustrating for the captain. It's fantastic at drawing enemy fire at range and harrassing, poking, dodging, weaving. It has a great and fun, active playstyle I still absolutely love to do in randoms. But it sadly doesn't find a proper role in competitive due to maneuverability issues that put it at serious disadvantages when fighting anything at closer ranges. The torpedo threat isn't there, and the best build for it puts its concealment at 9.7 km. Without smoke.
Harugumo has concealment, unlike Khabarovsk, but is extremely unmaneuverable, with a turning circle that rivals Conqueror's. It's also a looooooooooooong ship, and it eats battleship AP like it's hungry for it. All of this is the price it pays for supreme gun DPM. And having a maneuverable, stealthy DD that's light on its feet is super important. This is why I choose to use Daring when in ranked. Occasionally Gearing could be good but it largely depends on your team.
Conqueror is great with its HE DPM and ability to make battleships think twice about pushing. Its AP punishes cruisers better than other BBs because of the short fuse timer that is less likely to just fly through the ship resulting in overpens. But you trade a lot for this. The torpedo belt is almost non-existent, and the armor does not allow it to really push. Sure, it has the super heal, but it doesn't do well against sustained HE firepower, especially from high-ROF ships like Smolensk, Worcester (which can pen every part of you with IFHE), Des Moines, etc. Push and you burn to death. Stay at range, and your impact is limited to whatever fires and citadels you can get at ranges at which ships can dodge your shells a bit more easily.
You've got Zao, Smolensk and Hindenburg, which I think are decent competitive ships but still have situational disadvantages.
Zao is a great ambusher/assassin, and a fantastic kiter with the legendary module. Only real weakness is the low HP pool and meager DPM. But its hits can really hurt, and the AP is glorious. However, it kind of lives in the shadow of the Henri, a ship whose AP penetration and flanking power is far greater despite the terrible concealment.
Smolensk is a highly-competitive "heavy DD with a citadel" that works well with a DD that knows how to spot without throwing his ship away from the first 2 minutes of the game. It can kite ships with 406mm guns at range as well. However, not every situation suits it and its high DPM is something you have to trade survivability and stopping power for. WIth IFHE you counter cruisers well, but again, the damage you do against battleships allows them the opportunity to disengage and heal.
Hindenburg is not the strongest ship for the competitive meta, but continues to be a solid all-rounder with great hydro, decent armor protection, etc. Its real weakness is poor maneuverability in some situations.
Going back to the Yamato, I think it's probably the most solid pick you have in terms of BBs. However, without much experience in it (iirc you said you just recently unlocked it), it might be a struggle until you tame the beast.
My own best picks for ranked are:
Cruiser: Worcester, Des Moines, Moskva, Smolensk, Stalingrad, Henri IV, Venezia (if the ranked meta is cruiser-heavy)
DD: Daring, Gearing
BB: Kremlin, Bourgogne (don't underestimate the HE DPM with main battery reload booster against ships you do not overmatch), Yamato
In terms of your own grievances with ranked, I think a little bit more competitive experience should help. It's also important (in ranked, more than in clan battles) to establish a mentality of "the protagonist", where you kind of have to plan your positioning and play carefully around carrying your team kicking and screaming towards a win all while securing your star in case a loss happens. I've observed that this is the second ranked season you've participated in and judging by the clans you've been in, with the exception of one, there wasn't really a chance to provide a solid competitive team-game experience in the form of clan battles. Hopping into a few CBs over a season with a clan that has an established mindset, culture, and community can really help develop the instincts that are necessary to gain the appropriate attitude to fare well in competitive. Our clan, for example, (shameless plug! HA!) has a private academy that pretty much helps recruits develop these instincts and draw more enjoyment from the game overall.