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About pR1sm

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  1. pR1sm

    Soviet cruiser Maxim Gorky

    couldnt really see the guns first time i saw the pic and thought it was a simple civilian ship XD
  2. pR1sm

    Deutschland Class

    Ev1n, on 27 August 2012 - 09:00 AM, said: Hope to see this class in-game. :) almost certainly in the later stages of the alpha or beta. just like in world of tanks, im pretty sure the devs will add everything the respective factions ever built, just so as to get large enough tech trees
  3. last info-post for today :P Scharnhorst-Class (German Navy, Battleships, 1938–1939) A class of two battleships built for the German navy in the late 1930s. Originally conceived as a more heavily armored Deutschland-class, the Scharnhorst and the Gneisenau quickly became political footballs in a game of technological one-upmanship. German Chancellor Adolf Hitler wanted each vessel to have the same armament and speed as the Deutschland-class but to carry more armor, giving a displacement of 19,000 tons. The navy arranged for a third 11-inch triple turret, which would increase the displacement to 26,000 tons. At first Hitler refused because of Versailles Treaty limitations, but he later acquiesced. After German officials learned that the new French Dunkerque-class ships were to mount 15-inch guns, Hitler ordered the Scharnhorst-class to also be equipped with 15-inch guns. Because the 11-inch triple turret was available and development of the 15-inch was several years away, the ships were built with 11-inch turrets with the understanding that they would be replaced with the higher caliber later. As built, each ship displaced 34,841 tons standard and 38,900 tons fully loaded. Measuring 741′5″ on the waterline, they were 753′11″ overall, with a beam of 98′5.” Three propellers drove each vessel at 32 knots through geared turbines. Armor varied from 13.75 to 6.75 inches on the belt and 14 to 6 inches on the main turrets to 3 inches on the deck. Armament included 9 × 279 mm/11-inch guns, 12 × 150 mm/5.8-inch, 14 × 105 mm, 16 × 37 mm guns, 8 × 20 mm antiaircraft guns, and 3 to 4 aircraft. Their wartime complement varied between 1,669 and 1,840 men. During the winter of 1938–1939 each ship was refitted with an “Atlantic bow” with greater sheer and flare to counteract their tendency to take water and spray forward when under way. Both vessels received additional antiaircraft armament during the war: the Scharnhorst 24 × 20 mm guns and the Gneisenau an even dozen. Scharnhorst was later fitted with 6 × 533 mm torpedo tubes taken off the light cruiser Nürnberg. The Scharnhorst was laid down at Wilhelmshaven Dockyards in May 1935, launched in June 1936, and commissioned in January 1939. She took part in the April 1940 invasion of Norway, where she was damaged. Nonetheless, she and her sister sank the British carrier Glorious the next month. In February 1942 the two German ships escaped from Brest, France, in the famous dash through the English Channel, but the Scharnhorst was damaged en route. She was sunk on her way to attack an Arctic convoy on 26 December 1943 by the battleship Duke of York and the cruisers Belfast, Jamaica, and Norfolk. All but 36 of her 1,900-man crew died. The wreck was discovered in September 2000. The Gneisenau was laid down at the Deutsche Werke yards at Kiel in May 1935, launched in December 1936, and commissioned in May 1938. Hit with her sister in a Royal Air Force attack on Brest, she reached Kiel without incident but was badly damaged in another air raid and was moved to Gdynia (Gdansk). She was decommissioned in July 1942, and her main armament was taken for coastal batteries, three guns being installed near the Hook of Holland and six in Norway. The 150 mm secondary armament saw similar service. The Gneisenau was scuttled at Gdynia as a blockship in March 1945. She was broken up by a Polish company from 1947 to 1951. References Kemp, Peter. The Escape of the “Scharnhorst” and “Gneisenau.” Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1975. Koop, Gerard. Battleships of the Scharnhorst Class. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1999. Ogden, Michael. The Battle of North Cape. London: W. Kimber, 1962. Winton, John. The Death of the Scharnhorst. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1983.
  4. pR1sm

    Yamato Class Battleship

    Kameho, on 25 August 2012 - 07:17 PM, said: Here. Have a Picture I drew in a another dimension when I was the Japanese guy who drew it. n1 ty
  5. Deutschland-Class (German Navy, Pocket Battleships, 1933–1936) renamed Lützow-Class by hitler order, when Panzerschiff (poket battleship) Admiral Graf Spee was on the River Plate estuary Class of “pocket battleships” built by Germany in the early 1930s. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles restricted the composition of the German Navy. Warships were limited to a maximum displacement of 10,000 tons and a gun caliber of 280 mm (11 inches). Using new technologies in electric welding and diesel propulsion, Germany built the Deutschland-class of Deutschland, Admiral Graf Spee, and Admiral Scheer. To avoid any conflict in the interpretation of the Versailles Treaty, the Deutschland-class ships were described as Panzerschiffe (armored ships). Spoiler Designed as long-range merchant raiders, these vessels were heavily armed yet thinly protected. Conceptually, they were to be stronger than any faster vessel. The Deutschlands were more powerful than any battleships save three British battle cruisers. In 1940 they were reclassified as heavy cruisers. During World War II all three vessels successfully carried out their missions as commerce raiders. The Deutschland sank 6,962 tons of shipping, the Admiral Graf Spee sank 50,089 tons, and the Admiral Scheer sank 137,223 tons. Built at the Wilhelmshaven Navy Yard, the Admiral Graf Spee was laid down on 1 October 1932, launched on 30 June 1934, and commissioned on 6 January 1936. She was scuttled on 17 December 1939 in the estuary of the Plata River after the British convinced her commanding officer that a superior force was standing off the neutral port of Montevideo. Hitler immediately ordered the name Deutschland changed to Lützow to prevent the possible sinking of any ship bearing the symbolic name “Germany.” Constructed by Deutsche Werke of Kiel, the Lützow was laid down on 5 February 1929, launched on 19 May 1931, and commissioned on 1 April 1933. She was scuttled at Swinemünde on 4 May 1945 after heavy damage from near misses by the Royal Air Force (RAF). The wreck was broken up in the 1960s. The Admiral Scheer was built at the Wilhelmshaven Navy Yard. Laid down on 25 June 1932, she was launched on 1 April 1933 and commissioned on 12 November 1934. She was sunk by the RAF on 9 April 1945 at Kiel. The capsized wreck was partially scrapped and later made part of the foundation of a new quay. Ships of the Deutschland-class displaced 11,700 tons under standard conditions and 15,900 to 16,200 tons when deep-loaded. Their hulls measured 610′3″ (oa) × 70′10″ × 24′3″. The vessels’ three propeller shafts were driven by eight double-acting 2-stroke 9-cylinder diesels that developed a total of 54,000 horsepower and produced a maximum speed of 28 knots. Armor varied in thickness from 1.6 inches on the main deck to 6 inches on the conning tower. Armament on each vessel included 6 × 280 mm/54s, 8 × 150 mm/55s, 6 × 105 mm/65s, 8 × 37 mm/83s, 6 × 20 mm antiaircraft guns, and 8 × 533 mm torpedo tubes. Each warship carried two catapult-launched aircraft. References Chesneau, Roger, ed. Conway’s All the World’s Fighting Ships, 1922–1946. London: Conway Maritime Press, 1997. Ireland, Bernard. Jane’s Battleships of the 20th Century. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
  6. pR1sm

    The Bismarck

    and some more copy-pasta from the na forum: Bismarck (German Navy, Battleship, 1940) German battleship of World War II. Laid down in July 1936 at Blohm and Voss shipyards in Hamburg, the ship was launched on 14 February 1939 and commissioned on 24 August 1940. Named for Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the ship was outfitted by January 1941 and underwent trials in March and April. Captain Ernst Lindemann was granted permission to call the ship “he” to honor Bismarck. The Bismarck displaced 44,734 tons and had an 8-inch deck and 12.5-inch belt armor. She was 813′8″(oa) × 118′8″ × 28′6″ and her engines were capable of a top speed of 29 knots. She carried 8 × 15-inch guns in four double turrets and 12 × 5.9-inch guns. The Bismarck was the largest and most powerful German ship built. Soon after the battleship was ready, Commander of the German Navy Grand Admiral Erich Raeder ordered Fleet Commander Rear Admiral Günther Lütjens to take the Bismarck to sea on a commerce-raiding mission. Lütjens had wanted to delay the sortie until the Scharnhorst or even the Tirpitz could join her, but Raeder refused. Only the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen was available. Two scout ships, two supply ships, four tankers, and six submarines had sailed earlier to wait for the capital ships to break out. On 18 May the Bismarck and her consort sortied from Gdynia, Poland, for Bergen, Norway. The Bismarck carried 103 officers, 1,962 crew members, and more than 200 film and media personnel. A Swedish cruiser spotted the Bismarck, and this information was relayed back through Swedish channels to the British military attaché in Stockholm. A member of the Norwegian resistance also radioed London about the Bismarck’s sortie. Guided by these reports, Royal Air Force (RAF) reconnaissance aircraft spotted the two German ships on 21 May. British warships immediately moved to intercept them. Late on the 23rd the two German ships had a brief encounter with the British cruisers Suffolk and Norfolk. Near dawn on the 24th crewmen on the Bismarck sighted Rear Admiral Lancelot E. Holland’s battle cruiser Hood and battleship Prince of Wales. At about 5:55 a.m., in what became known as the Iceland Battle, or the Battle of the Denmark Straits, the opposing forces commenced fire. The Bismarck’s fourth salvo struck the Hood’s magazines and blew her up; only three of her 1,419 crew members survived. The battle was over in only 16 minutes. The Prince of Wales had taken seven hits (four from the Bismarck) while the Bismarck took three. The Prince of Wales made smoke and retired. Leaking oil and with her speed reduced to 28 knots, the Bismarck maneuvered to break contact. The Prinz Eugen left the Bismarck around 4:00 p.m. in an attempt to draw off the British. Just before midnight, nine Swordfish and six Fulmar aircraft from the carrier HMS Victorious attacked. The Bismarck, although hit by one torpedo, suffered little damage. At 3:00 a.m. on 25 May the Bismarck succeeded in losing the British shadowing ships. Then, after 31 hours of searching, a Catalina flying boat spotted the Bismarck making for a French port. The cruiser HMS Sheffield picked up the chase around 5:00 p.m. By 26 May it seemed the Bismarck would escape. In a desperate effort to stop her, 15 Swordfish torpedo aircraft from the carrier Ark Royal attacked the Bismarck around 9:00 p.m. Hit by two torpedoes, the Bismarck’s rudder jammed at 12 degrees to port. Unable to escape, the Bismarck awaited her pursuers. At about 8:45 a.m. on the 27th the British battleships King George V and Rodney opened fire. By 10:00 the Bismarck had been hit by hundreds of shells and was largely out of action. Still the ship remained afloat. Even as the cruiser Dorsetshire positioned to fire torpedoes into the burning hulk, the Bismarck’s crew detonated internal charges. Three torpedoes struck and the German ship went down at 10:39 p.m. Efforts by British ships to rescue survivors were cut short by reports of German submarines in the area. As a result, only 110 crew members of a complement of 2,300 survived. On 9 June 1989 undersea explorer Robert D. Ballard located the wreck of the Bismarck some 600 miles off the French coast. In the ongoing controversy over who actually sank the great ship, Ballard’s investigations seemed to confirm the German view that the scuttling had sent her to the bottom. Tirpitz (German Navy, Battleship, 1941) Powerful German battleship, sister ship to the Bismarck. The Tirpitz, named for Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz (1849–1930), father of the German High Seas Fleet, was laid down on 20 October 1936 at Wilhemshaven Navy Yard. Launched on 1 April 1939, she was commissioned on 25 February 1941. The Tirpitz was 813.5′ × 118′, displaced 42,900 tons (52,600 fully loaded), had four turrets of 2 × 15-inch guns, was capable of 30.8 knots, and had a crew of 2,340 men. As with the Bismarck, the Tirpitz posed a threat to Allied shipping, although she saw her only real action on 6 September 1943 during the shelling of Spitzbergen. Beginning in January 1941, when she was still in dry dock, large numbers of Allied ships and aircraft (mostly British) were involved in attempts to destroy her. On 22 September 1943, the British midget submarines X6 and X7 slipped through German defenses at Kaa Fjord, Norway, and planted mines on the Tirpitz. The subsequent explosions severely damaged her, although the Germans effected repairs. On 3 April 1944, 40 Barracuda aircraft from the carriers HMS Victorious and Furious attacked the Tirpitz. She took 14 hits and was again disabled. Once again the Germans made repairs. Frustrated by the lack of success, the British turned to Sir Barnes Wallis, who had developed the “skip,” or “bounce,” bombs used in the Dambuster raids early in the war. He solved the problem posed by the Tirpitz’s heavy armor with a 12,000-pound “Tallboy” armor-piercing bomb. On 15 September 1944, 27 Lancaster bombers of the RAF 9th and 617th Squadrons, carrying a total of 20 Tallboys, took off from Yagodnik, Russia, near Archangel, for the Tirpitz at Kaa Fjord, Norway. The mountains screened their approach and the defenders were caught by surprise. One Tallboy exploded in the battleship’s hull and several near misses severely damaged her engines. All of the bombers returned to their bases. German leaders decided it was not worth the effort to overhaul the Tirpitz, and so on 15 October they moved her south to Tromso as a semistatic, heavy artillery battery. On 29 October the RAF sent 37 Lancasters from Lossiemouth, Scotland, on another raid against the Tirpitz. Minus their mid-upper gun turrets and carrying extra fuel tanks, they flew a mission of over 2,250 miles. Cloud cover obscured the Tirpitz and none of 32 Tallboys hit home. On 12 November Wing Commander Willie Tait led 32 Lancasters of the 9th and 617th Squadrons in another long-range raid. Approaching on a wide sweeping route from Swedish airspace that completely confused German fighter defenders, the bombers attacked from inland at 14,000 feet. They scored three direct hits, tearing a large hole in the Tirpitz’s hull and exploding her magazines. The Tirpitz rolled over and sank. Of her 2,300-man crew, 917 died and hundreds were wounded. All of the Lancasters, save one that landed in Sweden, returned home. After the war a Norwegian salvage company bought the rights to the Tirpitz, and between 1948 and 1957 it salvaged most of the hulk. ____________ sources: http://kriegsmarinet...vice.devhub.com http://www.bobhennem...schlandpics.htm
  7. some informative copy-pasta from the NA-forum The Yamato-class battleships (大和型戦艦 Yamato-gata senkan?) were battleships of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) constructed and operated during World War II. Displacing 72,000 long tons (73,000 t) at full load, the vessels were the heaviest and most powerfully armed battleships ever constructed. The class carried the largest naval artillery ever fitted to a warship, nine 460-millimetre (18.1 in) naval guns, each capable of firing 2,998-pound (1,360 kg) shells over 26 miles (42 km). Two battleships of the class (Yamato and Musashi) were completed, while a third (Shinano) was converted to an aircraft carrier during construction. Due to the threat of American submarines and aircraft carriers, both Yamato and Musashi spent the majority of their careers in naval bases at Brunei, Truk, and Kure—deploying on several occasions in response to American raids on Japanese bases—before participating in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944, as part of Admiral Kurita's Centre Force. Musashi was sunk during the course of the battle by American carrier airplanes. Shinano was sunk ten days after her commissioning in November 1944 by the submarine USS Archer-Fish, while Yamato was sunk in April 1945 during Operation Ten-Go. Background The design of the Yamato-class battleships was shaped by expansionist movements within the Japanese government, Japanese industrial power, and the need for a fleet powerful enough to intimidate likely adversaries.[6] After the end of the First World War, many navies—including those of the United States, the United Kingdom, and Imperial Japan—continued and expanded construction programs that had begun during the conflict. The enormous costs associated with these programs pressured their government leaders to begin a disarmament conference. On 8 July 1921, the United States' Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes invited delegations from the other major maritime powers—France, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom—to come to Washington, D.C. and discuss a possible end to the naval arms race. The subsequent Washington Naval Conference resulted in the Washington Naval Treaty. Along with many other provisions, it limited all future battleships to a standard displacement of 35,000 long tons (36,000 t; 39,000 short tons) and a maximum gun caliber of 16 inches (406 mm). It also agreed that the five countries would not construct more capital ships for ten years and would not replace any ship that survived the treaty until it was at least twenty years old.[7][8] Musashi during her construction in 1938 In the 1930s, the Japanese government began a shift towards ultranationalist militancy.[9] This movement called for the expansion of the Japanese Empire to include much of the Pacific Ocean and Southeast Asia. The maintenance of such an empire—spanning 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from China to Midway Island—required a sizable fleet capable of sustained control of territory.[10] Although all of Japan's battleships built prior to the Yamato-class had been completed before 1921—as the Washington Treaty had prevented any more from being completed—all had been either reconstructed or significantly modernized, or both, in the 1930s.[11] This modernization included, among other things, additional speed and firepower, which the Japanese intended to use to conquer and defend their aspired-to empire.[12] When Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1934 over the Mukden Incident, it also renounced all treaty obligations.[13] Japan would no longer design battleships within the treaty limitations and was free to build warships larger than those of the other major maritime powers.[14] Japan's intention to acquire resource-producing colonies in the Pacific and Southeast Asia would likely lead to confrontation with the United States,[15] thus the U.S. became Japan's primary potential enemy. The U.S. possessed significantly greater industrial power than Japan, with 32.2% of worldwide industrial production compared to Japan's 3.5%.[16] Furthermore, several leading members of the United States Congress had pledged "to outbuild Japan three to one in a naval race."[17] Consequently, as Japanese industrial output could not compete with American industrial power,[6] Japanese ship designers developed plans for new battleships individually superior to their counterparts in the United States Navy.[18] Each of these battleships would be capable of engaging multiple enemy capital ships simultaneously, eliminating the need to expend as much industrial effort as the U.S. on battleship construction.[6] Design Bridge of the Musashi Preliminary studies for a new class of battleships began after Japan's departure from the League of Nations and its renunciation of the Washington and London naval treaties; from 1934 to 1936, 24 initial designs were put forth. These early plans varied greatly in armament, propulsion, endurance, and armor. Main batteries fluctuated between 460 mm (18.1 in) and 406 mm (16.0 in) guns, while the secondary armaments were composed of differing numbers of 155 mm (6.1 in), 127 mm (5.0 in), and 25 mm (0.98 in) guns. Propulsion in most of the designs was a hybrid diesel-turbine combination, though one relied solely on diesel and another planned for only turbines. Endurance in the designs had, at 18 kn (21 mph; 33 km/h), a low of 6,000 nmi (11,000 km) in design A-140-J2 to a high of 9,200 nmi (17,000 km) in designs A-140A and A-140-B2. Armor varied between providing protection from the fire of 406 mm guns to enough protection against 460 mm guns.[19] After these had been reviewed, two of the original twenty-four were finalized as possibilities, A-140-F3 and A-140-F4. Differing primarily in their range (4,900 nmi (9,100 km) versus 7,200 nmi (13,300 km) at 16 kn (18 mph; 30 km/h)), they were used in the formation of the final preliminary study, which was finished on 20 July 1936. Tweaks to that design resulted in the definitive design of March 1937,[20] which was put forth by Rear-Admiral Fukuda Keiji;[21] an endurance of 7,200 nm was finally decided upon, and the hybrid diesel-turbine propulsion was abandoned in favor of just turbines. The diesels were removed from the design because of problems with the engines aboard the Taigei-class submarine tenders.[20] Their engines, which were similar to the ones that were going to be mounted in the new battleships, required a "major repair and maintenance effort"[22] to keep them running due to a "fundamental design defect".[22] In addition, if the engines failed entirely, the 200 mm (7.9 in) armor that protected that area would severely hamper any attempt to replace them.[23] The final design called for a standard displacement of 64,000 long tons (65,000 t) and a full-load displacement of 69,988 long tons (71,111 t),[24] making the ships of the class the largest battleships yet designed, and the largest battleships ever constructed. The design called for a main armament of nine 460-millimetre (18.1 in) naval guns, mounted in three triple-turrets—each of which weighed more than a 1930s-era destroyer.[21] The designs were quickly approved by Japanese Naval high command,[25] over the objections of naval aviators, who argued for the construction of aircraft carriers rather than battleships.[26][A 1] In all, five Yamato-class battleships were planned.[6] Ships Yamato and Musashi anchored in the waters off of the Truk Islands in 1943 Although five Yamato-class vessels had been planned in 1937, only three—two battleships and a converted aircraft carrier—were ever completed. All three vessels were built in extreme secrecy, as to prevent American intelligence officials from learning of their existence and specifications;[6] indeed, the United States' Office of Naval Intelligence only became aware of Yamato and Musashi by name in late 1942. At this early time, their assumptions on the class' specifications were quite far off; while they were correct on their length, the class was given as having a beam of 110 feet (34 m) (in actuality, it was about 127 feet (39 m)) and a displacement of 40,000–57,000 tons (in actuality, 69,000 tons). In addition, the main armament of Yamato-class was given as nine 16-inch (41 cm) guns as late as July 1945, four months after Yamato was sunk.[27][28] [Note that the assumed beam, displacement and armament are virtually identical to the U. S. Navy's own Iowa-class battleships.][citation needed] Both Jane's Fighting Ships and the Western media also misreported the specifications of the ships. In September 1944, Jane's Fighting Ships listed the displacement of both the Yamato and the Musashi as 45,000 tons.[29] Similarly, both the New York Times and the Associated Press reported that the two ships displaced 45,000 tons with a speed of 30 knots,[30] and even after the sinking of the Yamato in April 1945, The Times of London continued to give 45,000 tons as the ship's displacement.[31] Nevertheless, the existence of the ships—and their supposed specifications—heavily influenced American naval engineers in the design of the Montana-class battleships, all five of which were to be built to counter the firepower of the Yamato class.[32] Yamato Main article: Japanese battleship Yamato Yamato on trials in 1941 Yamato was ordered in March 1937, laid down 4 November 1937, launched 8 August 1940, and commissioned 16 December 1941.[21] She underwent training exercises until 27 May 1942, when the vessel was deemed "operable" by Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto.[21] Joining the 1st Battleship Division, Yamato served as the flagship of the Japanese Combined Fleet during the Battle of Midway in June 1942, yet did not engage enemy forces during the battle.[33] The next two years were spent intermittently between Truk and Kure naval bases, with her sister-ship Musashi replacing Yamato as flagship of the Combined Fleet.[21] During this time period, Yamato, as part of the 1st Battleship Division, deployed on multiple occasions to counteract American carrier-raids on Japanese island bases. On 25 December 1943, she suffered major torpedo damage at the hands of USS Skate, and was forced to return to Kure for repairs and structural upgrades.[21] In 1944—following extensive antiaircraft and secondary battery upgrades—Yamato joined the Second Fleet in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, serving as an escort to a Japanese Carrier Division.[34] In October 1944, as part of Vice Admiral Takeo Kurita's Center Force for the Battle of Leyte Gulf, she used her naval artillery against an enemy vessel for the only time, helping sink the American escort carrier Gambier Bay and the destroyer USS Johnston before she was forced away by torpedoes from USS Heermann (DD-532), which put her out of combat.[35] Lightly damaged at Kure in March 1945, the ship was then refitted with upgraded antiaircraft armament.[21] Yamato was sunk 7 April 1945 by American carrier aircraft during Operation Ten-Go, receiving 10 torpedo and 7 bomb hits before capsizing; 2,498 of the 2,700 crew-members were lost, including Vice-Admiral Seiichi Itō.[28] The sinking of the Yamato was seen as a major American victory, and Hanson W. Baldwin, the military editor of the New York Times wrote that "the sinking of the new Japanese battleship Yamato ... is striking proof—if any were needed—of the fatal weakness of Japan in the air and at sea."[36] Musashi Main article: Japanese battleship Musashi Musashi departing Brunei in October 1944 Musashi was ordered in March 1937, laid down 29 March 1938, launched 1 November 1940, and commissioned 5 August 1942. From September to December 1942, she was involved in surface and air-combat training exercises at Hashirajima. On 11 February 1943, Musashi relieved her sister ship Yamato as flagship of the Combined Fleet. Until July 1944, Musashi shifted between the naval bases of Truk, Yokosuka, Brunei, and Kure. On 29 March 1944, she sustained moderate damage near the bow from one torpedo fired by the American submarine Tunny. After repairs and refitting throughout April 1944, Musashi joined the 1st Battleship Division in Okinawa.[37] In June 1944, as part of the Second Fleet, the ship escorted Japanese aircraft carriers during the Battle of the Philippine Sea.[37] In October 1944, she left Brunei as part of Admiral Takeo Kurita's Centre Force during the Battle of Leyte Gulf.[38] Musashi was sunk 24 October during the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea, taking 17 bomb and 19 torpedo hits, with the loss of 1,023 of her 2,399-man crew.[39] Shinano Main article: Japanese aircraft carrier Shinano Shinano in November 1944 Shinano, originally Warship Number 110, was laid down as the third member of the Yamato-class, albeit with a slightly modified design. Most of the original armor values were slightly reduced, including the belt, deck, and turrets. The savings in weight this entailed meant that improvements could be made in other areas, including added protection for fire-control and lookout positions. In addition, the 12.7 cm (5.0 in) secondary armament on the first two Yamatos was to have been replaced by the 10 cm (3.9 in)/65 caliber Type 98 gun. Although smaller, this gun was superior to the 127 mm, possessing a significantly greater muzzle velocity, maximum range, anti-aircraft ceiling and rate of fire.[40] In June 1942, following the Japanese defeat at Midway, construction of Shinano was suspended, and the hull was gradually rebuilt as an aircraft carrier.[41] She was designed as a 64,800-ton support vessel that would be capable of ferrying, repairing and replenishing the airfleets of other carriers.[42][43] Although she was originally scheduled for commissioning in early 1945,[44] the construction of the ship was accelerated after the Battle of the Philippine Sea;[45] this resulted in Shinano being launched on 5 October 1944 and commissioned a little more than a month later on 19 November. Shinano departed Yokosuka for Kure nine days later. In the early morning on 29 November, Shinano was hit by four torpedoes from the USS Archer-Fish.[41] Although the damage seemed manageable, poor flooding control caused the vessel to list to starboard. Shortly before midday, she capsized and sank, taking 1,435 of her 2,400-man crew with her.[41] To this day, Shinano is the largest naval vessel to have been sunk by a submarine.[46][47] Warships Number 111 and 797 Warship Number 111, never named, was planned as the fourth member of the Yamato-class and the second ship to incorporate the improvements of Shinano. The ship's keel was laid after Yamato's launch in August 1940 and construction continued until December 1941, when the Japanese began to question their ambitious capital ship building program—with the coming of war, the resources essential in constructing the ship would become much harder to obtain. As a result, the hull of the fourth vessel, only about 30% complete, was taken apart and scrapped in 1942; materials from this were used in the conversions of Ise and Hyūga to hybrid battleship/aircraft carriers.[48][49][A 2] The fifth vessel, Warship Number 797, was planned as an improved Shinano but was never laid down. In addition to the modifications made to that ship, 797 would have removed the two 155 mm (6.1 in) wing turrets in favor of additional 100 mm guns; authors William Garzke and Robert Dulin estimate that this would have allowed for 24 of these weapons. Yamato was eventually modified in 1944 to something akin to this.[50] Specifications Armament Yamato's port-side anti-aircraft armament as depicted in the model of the ship at the 'Yamato Museum' in Kure Although the primary armament of the Yamato-class was officially designated as the 40 cm/45 caliber (15.9 in) Type 94,[51] it actually took the form of nine 46 cm/45 caliber (18.1 in) guns—the largest guns ever fitted to a warship[6]—mounted in three 3-gun turrets, each of which weighed 2,774 metric tons.[52] Each gun was 21.13 metres (69.3 ft) long and weighed 147.3 metric tons (145.0 long tons).[53] High-explosive armour-piercing shells were used which were capable of being fired 42.0 kilometres (26.1 mi) at a rate of 1½ to 2 per minute.[6][51] The main guns were also capable of firing 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) 3 Shiki tsûjôdan ("Common Type 3") anti-aircraft shells.[A 3] A time fuze was used to set how far away the shells would explode (although they were commonly set to go off 1,000 metres (1,100 yd) away). Upon detonation, each of these shells would release 900 incendiary-filled tubes in a 20° cone facing towards incoming aircraft; a bursting charge was then used to explode the shell itself so that more steel splinters were created, and then the tubes would ignite. The tubes would burn for five seconds at about 3,000 °C (5,430 °F) and would start a flame that was around 5 metres (16 ft) long. Even though they comprised 40% of the total main ammunition load by 1944,[51] 3 Shiki tsûjôdan were rarely used in combat against enemy aircraft due to the severe damage the firing of these shells inflicted on the barrels of the main guns;[54] indeed, one of the shells may have exploded early and disabled one of Musashi's guns during the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea.[51] The shells were intended to put up a barrage of flame that any aircraft attempting to attack would have to navigate through. However, U.S. pilots considered these shells to be more of a pyrotechnics display than a competent anti-aircraft weapon.[51] In the original design, the Yamato-class' secondary armament comprised twelve 6.1-inch (15 cm) guns mounted in four triple turrets (one forward, one aft, two midships),[52] and twelve 5-inch (13 cm) guns in six double-turrets (three on each side amidships).[52] In addition, the Yamato-class originally carried twenty-four 1-inch (2.5 cm) anti-aircraft guns, primarily mounted amidships.[52] In 1944, Yamato—the sole remaining member of the class—underwent significant anti-aircraft upgrades, with the configuration of secondary armament changed to six 6.1-inch (15 cm) guns,[55] twenty-four 5-inch (13 cm) guns,[55] and one hundred and sixty-two 1-inch (2.5 cm) antiaircraft guns,[55] in preparation for operations in Leyte Gulf.[56] The armament on Shinano was quite different from that of her sister vessels due to her conversion. As the carrier was designed for a support role, significant antiaircraft weaponry was installed on the vessel: sixteen 5-inch (13 cm) guns,[57] one hundred twenty-five 1-inch (25 mm) antiaircraft guns,[57] and three hundred thirty-six 5-inch (13 cm) antiaircraft rocket launchers in twelve twenty-eight barrel turrets.[58] None of these guns were ever used against an enemy vessel or aircraft.[58] Armour Protection schematics of the class at the rear turret, click to enlarge. Here is another cut amidships Designed to engage multiple enemy battleships simultaneously,[4] the Yamatos were fitted with heavy armour plating described by naval historian Mark Stille as providing "an unparalleled degree of protection in surface combat".[59] The main belt of armour along the side of the vessel was 410 millimetres (16 in) thick,[6] with additional bulkheads 355 millimetres (14.0 in) thick beyond the main-belt.[6] Furthermore, the top hull shape was very advanced, the peculiar sideways curving effectively maximizing armor protection and structural rigidity while optimizing weight. The armour on the main-turrets surpassed even that of the main-belt, with plating 650 millimetres (26 in) thick.[6] Armor plates in both the main belt and main turrets was made of Vickers Hardened, which was a face-hardened steel armor.[60] Deck armour—75 millimetres (3.0 in) thick—was composed of a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy. Ballistics tests at the proving ground at Kamegabuki demonstrated the deck alloy to be superior to the homogeneous Vickers plates by 10–15%.[60] Additional plating was designed by manipulating the chromium and nickel composition of the alloy. Higher contents of nickel allowed the plate to be rolled and bent without developing fracture properties.[60] The relatively new procedure of arc welding was used extensively throughout the ship, strengthening the durability of the armour plating.[61] Through this technique, the lower-side belt armour, included in the ships as a response to gunnery experiments upon Tosa and the new Japanese Type 91 shell which could travel great lengths underwater,[62] was used to strengthen the hull structure of the entire vessel.[61] In total, the vessels of the Yamato-class contained 1,147 watertight compartments,[61] of which 1,065 were beneath the armoured deck.[61] However, the armour of the Yamato-class still suffered from several shortcomings, many of which would prove fatal in 1944–45.[63] In particular, poor jointing between the upper-belt and lower-belt armour created a weak-point just below the waterline, causing the class to be susceptible to air-dropped torpedoes.[54] Other structural weaknesses existed near the bow of the vessels, where the armour plating was generally thinner.[54] The hull of the Shinano was subject to even greater structural weaknesses, having been equipped with minimal armour and no watertight compartments at the time of her sinking.[57] Propulsion The Yamato-class was fitted with 12 Kanpon Boilers, which powered quadruple steam turbines.[2] These, in turn, drove four 6-metre (20 ft) propellers. This powerplant enabled the Yamato-class to achieve a top speed of 27 knots (50 km/h).[6] With an indicated horsepower of 147,948 (110,325 kW),[6] the Yamato-class' ability to function alongside fast carriers was limited. In addition, the fuel consumption rate of both battleships was very high.[56] As a result, neither battleship was used in combat during the Solomon Islands Campaign or the minor battles during the "island hopping" period of 1943 and early 1944.[56] The propulsion system of the Shinano was slightly improved, allowing the carrier to achieve a top speed of 28 knots (52 km/h).[58] Type: Battleship Displacement: 68,200 long tons (69,300 t) trial 69,988 long tons (71,111 t) standard[2] 72,000 long tons (73,000 t) full load.[2] Length: 256 m (839 ft 11 in) at water-line[3] 263 m (862 ft 10 in) overall[3] Beam: 38.9 m (127 ft 7 in)[3] Draught: 10.4 m (34 ft 1 in) Propulsion: 12 Kanpon boilers, driving 4 steam turbines 150,000 shp (110 MW)[3] four 3-bladed propellers, 6 m (19 ft 8 in) diameter Speed: 27 knots (50 km/h)[3] Endurance: 7,200 nautical miles @ 16 knots (13,300 km @ 30 km/h)[3] Complement: 2,767[4] Armament: As built: 9 x 46.0 cm (18.1 in) guns (3×3).[2] 6 × 15.5 cm (6.1 in) guns (2×3).[2] 12 × 12.7 cm (5 in) guns (6×2).[2] 24 × 25 mm (0.98 in) AA guns (8×3) 26 × 13 mm (0.51 in) AA guns (2×2)[5] Armor: 650 mm (26 in) on face of main turrets[5] 410 mm (16 in) side armor (400 mm (16 in) on Musashi),[5] inclined 20 degrees 200 mm (8 in) armored deck (75%) 230 mm (9 in) armored deck (25%)[5] Aircraft carried: 4 Aichi E13A, 3 Mitsubishi F1M 2 catapults (Yamato, Musashi) 47 aircraft (Shinano)